The Life and Times of Marilynne Robinson
Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941.
Marilynne Robinson is born in Sandpoint, Idaho, on November 26, 1943.
World War II ends, 1945.
Commercial television available to the public, 1947.
Dwight D. Eisenhower inaugurated U.S. President, 1953, ushering in a period of economic prosperity.
In Brown v. Board of Education, school segregation is ruled unconstitutional, 1954.
Robinson attends high school in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho.
President John F. Kennedy is assassinated, 1963.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution officially embroils U.S. in Vietnam, 1964.
Robinson graduates from Brown University, 1966, and goes on to earn her PhD.
A fire at Sunshine Mine in Kellogg, Idaho takes ninety-one lives, 1972.
Congress dedicates John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Memorial Parkway, which connects Grand Teton and Yellowstone National Parks in Wyoming, 1972.
Robinson works on Housekeeping with little thought of publication.
Housekeeping is published in 1980 and wins the PEN/Hemingway Award for best first novel.
Mount St. Helens in Washington erupts, covering northern Idaho with volcanic ash, 1980.
Robinson's Mother Country is published, 1989.
Idaho celebrates the centennial of its statehood on July 3, 1990.
Robinson joins the faculty of the University of Iowa Writers' Workshop, 1991.
The Death of Adam, Robinson's book of ten eclectic essays, is published, 1998.
Robinson's second novel, Gilead, is published in 2004; receives the Pulitzer Prize in 2005.
The Western Railroads
As the industrial revolution changed the American economy and fences and railroads crisscrossed the western frontier, a new way of life emerged. Train travel opened up the West for people looking for a new job, a new start, or a new adventure. For many of the small outpost towns in the Northwest, trains were one of the few ways to get beyond the city limits.
The Northern Pacific Railway traversed Marilynne Robinson's hometown of Sandpoint, winding its way from Minnesota toward the Pacific Ocean. The towns along its route in Idaho were rarely a destination, but always a place for moving through. Although Housekeeping's Fingerbone is fictional, the railroad bridge is not; it was built in 1905 to replace the original, built in 1882. The bridge connects Sandpoint to Venton, Idaho, across an 8,000-foot-wide expanse of the Pend Oreille River.
By the 1930s, the Dust Bowl and the Great Depression caused a great migration out of the Plains states and into the groves and vineyards of California, as chronicled in John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath (1939). An itinerant population also began moving through the country, making temporary homes on railroad cars and park benches. Among them, terms were codified to identify someone's status on the rails. According to Ben Reitman, a physician who worked with the poor in Chicago in the early twentieth century, "a hobo was someone who traveled and worked, a tramp was someone who traveled but didn't work, and a bum was someone who didn't travel and didn't work."
The image of the tramp has been an archetype of American fiction from Jack London to Jack Kerouac, a romanticized rebel who casts off responsibility for the freedom of the road, learning hard lessons about himself and society along the way. In Housekeeping, Robinson's Sylvie doesn't fit the mold. Here is a tramp come home, responsible now for mothering two young girls, keeping up appearances around town, and keeping house. This interweaving of restlessness into domestication and domestication into restlessness is ultimately untenable. The girls and Sylvie must choose between a rumbling wanderlust and a place called home.
Marilynne Robinson (Copyright Nancy Crampton)
The railroad bridge across Lake Pend Oreille in Sandpoint (Photo by Chris Bessler)
Christine Lahti and Sarah Walker dance through the flooded living room as Sylvie and Ruthie in the 1987 film version of Housekeeping. (George Eastman House Motion Picture Department)
Sylvie and Ruthie start the fire in the film Housekeeping (1987). (George Eastman House Motion Picture Department)